Android中System.loadLibrary() 的执行过程

发表于 Android 分类,标签:

转自:http://my.oschina.net/wolfcs/blog/129696


System.loadLibrary()是我们在使用Java的JNI机制时,会用到的一个非常重要的函数,它的作用即是把实现了我们在Java code中声明的native方法的那个libraryload进来,或者load其他什么动态连接库。

算是处于好奇吧,我们可以看一下这个方法它的实现,即执行流程。(下面分析的那些code,来自于android 4.2.2 aosp版。)先看一下这个方法的code(在libcore/luni/src/main/java/java/lang/System.java这个文件中):

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/**
 * Loads and links the library with the specified name. The mapping of the
 * specified library name to the full path for loading the library is
 * implementation-dependent.
 *
 * @param libName
 *            the name of the library to load.
 * @throws UnsatisfiedLinkError
 *             if the library could no<span style="color:#003399;"></span>t be loaded.
 */
public static void loadLibrary(String libName) {
    Runtime.getRuntime().loadLibrary(libName, VMStack.getCallingClassLoader());
}

由上面的那段code,可以看到,它的实现非常简单,就只是先调用VMStack.getCallingClassLoader()获取到ClassLoader,然后再把实际要做的事情委托给了Runtime来做而已。接下来我们再看一下Runtime.loadLibrary()的实现(在libcore/luni/src/main/java/java/lang/Runtime.java这个文件中):

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/*
 * Loads and links a library without security checks.
 */
void loadLibrary(String libraryName, ClassLoader loader) {
    if (loader != null) {
        String filename = loader.findLibrary(libraryName);
        if (filename == null) {
            throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError("Couldn't load " + libraryName
                                           + " from loader " + loader
                                           + ": findLibrary returned null");
        }
        String error = nativeLoad(filename, loader);
        if (error != null) {
            throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError(error);
        }
        return;
    }
 
    String filename = System.mapLibraryName(libraryName);
    List<String> candidates = new ArrayList<String>();
    String lastError = null;
    for (String directory : mLibPaths) {
        String candidate = directory + filename;
        candidates.add(candidate);
        if (new File(candidate).exists()) {
            String error = nativeLoad(candidate, loader);
            if (error == null) {
                return; // We successfully loaded the library. Job done.
            }
            lastError = error;
        }
    }
 
    if (lastError != null) {
        throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError(lastError);
    }
    throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError("Library " + libraryName + " not found; tried " + candidates);
}

由上面的那段code,我们看到,loadLibrary()可以被看作是一个2步走的过程

  1. 获取到library path。对于这一点,上面的那个函数,依据于所传递的ClassLoader的不同,会有两种不同的方法。如果ClassLoader非空,则会利用ClassLoader的findLibrary()方法来获取library的path。而如果ClassLoader为空,则会首先依据传递进来的library name,获取到library file的name,比如传递“hello”进来,它的library file name,经过System.mapLibraryName(libraryName)将会是“libhello.so”;然后再在一个path list(即上面那段code中的mLibPaths)中查找到这个library file,并最终确定library 的path。

  2. 调用nativeLoad()这个native方法来load library

这段code,又牵出几个问题,首先,可用的library path都是哪些,这实际上也决定了,我们的so文件放在哪些folder下,才可以被真正load起来?其次,在native层load library的过程,又实际做了什么事情?下面会对这两个问题,一一的作出解答。

系统的library path

我们由简单到复杂的来看这个问题。先来看一下,在传入的ClassLoader为空的情况(尽管我们知道,在System.loadLibrary()这个case下不会发生),前面Runtime.loadLibrary()的实现中那个mLibPaths的初始化的过程,在Runtime的构造函数中,如下:

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/**
 * Prevent this class from being instantiated.
 */
private Runtime(){
    String pathList = System.getProperty("java.library.path", ".");
    String pathSep = System.getProperty("path.separator", ":");
    String fileSep = System.getProperty("file.separator", "/");
 
    mLibPaths = pathList.split(pathSep);
 
    // Add a '/' to the end so we don't have to do the property lookup
    // and concatenation later.
    for (int i = 0; i < mLibPaths.length; i++) {
        if (!mLibPaths[i].endsWith(fileSep)) {
            mLibPaths[i] += fileSep;
        }
    }
}

可以看到,那个library path list实际上读取自一个system property。那在android系统中,这个system property的实际内容又是什么呢?dump这些内容出来,就像下面这样:

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05-11 07:51:40.974: V/QRCodeActivity(11081): pathList = /vendor/lib:/system/lib
05-11 07:51:40.974: V/QRCodeActivity(11081): pathSep = :
05-11 07:51:40.974: V/QRCodeActivity(11081): fileSep = /


然后是传入的ClassLoader非空的情况,ClassLoaderfindLibrary()方法的执行过程。首先看一下它的实现(在libcore/luni/src/main/java/java/lang/ClassLoader.java这个文件中)

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/**
 * Returns the absolute path of the native library with the specified name,
 * or {@code null}. If this method returns {@code null} then the virtual
 * machine searches the directories specified by the system property
 * "java.library.path".
 * <p>
 * This implementation always returns {@code null}.
 * </p>
 *
 * @param libName
 *            the name of the library to find.
 * @return the absolute path of the library.
 */
protected String findLibrary(String libName) {
    return null;
}

竟然是一个空函数。那系统中实际运行的ClassLoader就是这个吗?我们可以做一个小小的实验,打印系统中实际运行的ClassLoader的String

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ClassLoader classLoader = getClassLoader();
Log.v(TAG, "classLoader = " + classLoader.toString());

在Galaxy Nexus上执行的结果如下:

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05-11 08:18:57.857: V/QRCodeActivity(11556): classLoader = dalvik.system.PathClassLoader[dexPath=/data/app/com.qrcode.qrcode-1.apk,libraryPath=/data/app-lib/com.qrcode.qrcode-1]

看到了吧,android系统中的 ClassLoader真正的实现 在dalvik的dalvik.system.PathClassLoader。打开libcore/dalvik/src/main/java/dalvik/system/PathClassLoader.java来看 PathClassLoader这个class 的实现,可以看到,就只是简单的继承 BaseDexClassLoader而已,没有任何实际的内容 。接下来我们就来看一下 BaseDexClassLoader中 那个 findLibrary() 真正的实现( 在libcore/dalvik/src/main/java/dalvik/system/BaseDexClassLoader.java这个文件中 ):

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@Override
public String findLibrary(String name) {
    return pathList.findLibrary(name);
}

这个方法看上去倒挺简单,不用多做解释。然后来看那个pathList的初始化的过程,在BaseDexClassLoader的构造函数里

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/**
 * Constructs an instance.
 *
 * @param dexPath the list of jar/apk files containing classes and
 * resources, delimited by {@code File.pathSeparator}, which
 * defaults to {@code ":"} on Android
 * @param optimizedDirectory directory where optimized dex files
 * should be written; may be {@code null}
 * @param libraryPath the list of directories containing native
 * libraries, delimited by {@code File.pathSeparator}; may be
 * {@code null}
 * @param parent the parent class loader
 */
public BaseDexClassLoader(String dexPath, File optimizedDirectory,
        String libraryPath, ClassLoader parent) {
    super(parent);
 
    this.originalPath = dexPath;
    this.originalLibraryPath = libraryPath;
    this.pathList =
        new DexPathList(this, dexPath, libraryPath, optimizedDirectory);
}

BaseDexClassLoader的构造函数也不用多做解释吧。然后是DexPathList的构造函数:

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/**
 * Constructs an instance.
 *
 * @param definingContext the context in which any as-yet unresolved
 * classes should be defined
 * @param dexPath list of dex/resource path elements, separated by
 * {@code File.pathSeparator}
 * @param libraryPath list of native library directory path elements,
 * separated by {@code File.pathSeparator}
 * @param optimizedDirectory directory where optimized {@code .dex} files
 * should be found and written to, or {@code null} to use the default
 * system directory for same
 */
public DexPathList(ClassLoader definingContext, String dexPath,
        String libraryPath, File optimizedDirectory) {
    if (definingContext == null) {
        throw new NullPointerException("definingContext == null");
    }
 
    if (dexPath == null) {
        throw new NullPointerException("dexPath == null");
    }
 
    if (optimizedDirectory != null) {
        if (!optimizedDirectory.exists())  {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                    "optimizedDirectory doesn't exist: "
                    + optimizedDirectory);
        }
 
        if (!(optimizedDirectory.canRead()
                        && optimizedDirectory.canWrite())) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                    "optimizedDirectory not readable/writable: "
                    + optimizedDirectory);
        }
    }
 
    this.definingContext = definingContext;
    this.dexElements =
        makeDexElements(splitDexPath(dexPath), optimizedDirectory);
    this.nativeLibraryDirectories = splitLibraryPath(libraryPath);
}

关于我们的library path的问题,可以只关注最后的那个splitLibraryPath(),这个地方,实际上即是把传进来的libraryPath 又丢给splitLibraryPath来获取library path 的list。可以看一下DexPathList.splitLibraryPath()的实现:

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/**
 * Splits the given library directory path string into elements
 * using the path separator ({@code File.pathSeparator}, which
 * defaults to {@code ":"} on Android, appending on the elements
 * from the system library path, and pruning out any elements that
 * do not refer to existing and readable directories.
 */
private static File[] splitLibraryPath(String path) {
    /*
     * Native libraries may exist in both the system and
     * application library paths, and we use this search order:
     *
     *   1. this class loader's library path for application
     *      libraries
     *   2. the VM's library path from the system
     *      property for system libraries
     *
     * This order was reversed prior to Gingerbread; see http://b/2933456.
     */
    ArrayList<File> result = splitPaths(
            path, System.getProperty("java.library.path", "."), true);
    return result.toArray(new File[result.size()]);
}

这个地方,是在用两个部分的library path list来由splitPaths构造最终的那个path list,一个部分是,传进来的library path,另外一个部分是,像我们前面看到的那个,是system property。然后再来看一下DexPathList.splitPaths()的实现:

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/**
 * Splits the given path strings into file elements using the path
 * separator, combining the results and filtering out elements
 * that don't exist, aren't readable, or aren't either a regular
 * file or a directory (as specified). Either string may be empty
 * or {@code null}, in which case it is ignored. If both strings
 * are empty or {@code null}, or all elements get pruned out, then
 * this returns a zero-element list.
 */
private static ArrayList<File> splitPaths(String path1, String path2,
        boolean wantDirectories) {
    ArrayList<File> result = new ArrayList<File>();
 
    splitAndAdd(path1, wantDirectories, result);
    splitAndAdd(path2, wantDirectories, result);
    return result;
}

总结一下,ClassLoader的那个findLibrary()实际上会在两个部分的folder中去寻找System.loadLibrary()要load的那个library,一个部分是,构造ClassLoader时,传进来的那个library path,即是app folder,另外一个部分是system property。在android系统中,查找要load的library,实际上会在如下3个folder中进行:

  1. /vendor/lib

  2. /system/lib

  3. /data/app-lib/com.qrcode.qrcode-1

上面第3个item只是一个例子,每一个app,它的那个app library path的最后一个部分都会是特定于那个app的。至于说,构造BaseDexClassLoader时的那个libraryPath 到底是怎么来的,那可能就会牵扯到android本身更复杂的一些过程了,在此不再做更详细的说明。

Native 层load library的过程

然后来看一下native层,把so文件load起的过程,先来一下nativeLoad()这个函数的实现(在JellyBean/dalvik/vm/native/java_lang_Runtime.cpp这个文件中):

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/*
 * static String nativeLoad(String filename, ClassLoader loader)
 *
 * Load the specified full path as a dynamic library filled with
 * JNI-compatible methods. Returns null on success, or a failure
 * message on failure.
 */
static void Dalvik_java_lang_Runtime_nativeLoad(const u4* args,
    JValue* pResult)
{
    StringObject* fileNameObj = (StringObject*) args[0];
    Object* classLoader = (Object*) args[1];
    char* fileName = NULL;
    StringObject* result = NULL;
    char* reason = NULL;